Dr. Peter L. Davies, Queen's University, Department of Biochemistry
Queen's University Peter L. Davies
Professor of Biochemistry & Biology

Recent publications:


  • Drori, R., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky, I. (2015) When Are Antifreeze Proteins in Solution Essential for Ice Growth Inhibition? Langmuir [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed: 25946514
  • Drori, R., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky, I. (2015) Experimental correlation between thermal hysteresis activity and the distance between antifreeze proteins on an ice surface. RCS Advances 5(11), 7848-7853. View the article on-line
  • Basu, K., Graham, L.A., Campbell, R.L. and Davies, P.L. (2014) Flies expand the repertoire of protein structures that bind ice. PNAS 112(3), 737-42. PubMed:25561557


  • Davies, P.L. (2014) Ice-binding proteins: a remarkable diversity of structures for stopping (and starting) ice growth. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 39(11), 548-555. View the article on-line PubMed: 25440715
  • Low, K.E., Partha, S.K., Davies, P.L., Campbell, R.L. (2014) Allosteric inhibitors of calpains: Reevaluating inhibition by PD150606 and LSEAL. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1840(12), 3367-3373. View the article on-line PubMed: 25196359
  • Drori, R., Celik, Y., Davies, P.L., and Braslavsky, I., (2014) Ice-Binding Proteins that Accumulate on Different Ice Crystal Planes Produces Distinct Thermal Hysteresis Dynamics. J. R. Soc. Interface 11(98):20140526. PubMed: 25008081
  • Vance, T.D.R., Olijve, L.L.C., Campbell, R.L., Voets, I.K., Davies, P.L., Guo, S., (2014) Ca2+-stabilized adhesin helps an Antarctic bacterium reach out and bind ice. Bioscience Reports. 34,(4). PubMed: 24892750
  • Middleton, A.J., Vanderbeld, B., Bredow, M., Tomalty, H., Davies, P.L., Walker, V.K. (2014) Isolation and characterization of ice-binding proteins from higher plants. Methods Mol Biol. 1166, 255-77. PubMed: 24852641
  • Partha, S.K., Ravulapalli, R., Allingham, J.S. Campbell, R.L., Davies, P.L. (2014) Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand domain: A homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand. FEBS Journal. 281(14), 3138-49. PubMed: 24846670
  • Jung, W., Gwak, Y., Davies, P.L., Kim, H.K., Jin, E. (2014) Isolation and characterization of antifreeze proteins from the Antarctic marine microalga pyramimonas gelidicola. Marine Biotechnology. 16 (5), 502-12. PubMed: 24609978
  • Sun,T., Feng-Hsu Lin, F-H., Campbell, R.L., Allingham, J.S., and Davies, P.L. (2014) An antifreeze protein folds with an interior network of over 400 semi-clathrate waters. Science 343(6172), 795-8. PubMed: 24531972
  • Basu, K., Garnham, C.P., Nishimiya, Y., Tsuda, S., Braslavsky, I., Davies, P.L. (2014) Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity. J. Vis. Exp. (83), e51185 PubMed: 24457629 Video


  • Graham L.A, Hobbs R.S, Fletcher G.L, Davies P.L. (2013) Helical antifreeze proteins have independently evolved in fishes on four occasions. PLoS ONE 8(12), e81285 PubMed: 24324684
  • Guo, S., Garnham, C.P., Partha, S.K., Campbell, R.L., Allingham, J.S., Davies, P.L. (2013) Role of Ca2+ in folding the tandem β-sandwich extender domains of a bacterial ice-binding adhesion. FEBS Journal Ref. no.: FJ-13-0467.R1.PubMed: 24024640
  • Hakim, A., Nguyen, J.B., Basu, K., Zhu, D.F., Thakral, D., Davies, P.L., Isaacs, F.J., Modis, Y., and Wuyi Meng, W. (2013) Crystal structure of an insect antifreeze protein and its implications for ice binding. Journal of Biological Chemistry 288(17), 12295-304. PubMed: 23486477
  • Olijve, L.L.C., Sun, T., Narayanan, T, Jud, C., Davies, P.L. and Voets, I.K. (2013) Solution structure of hyperactive type I antifreeze protein3. RSC Advances 3, 5903-08.
  • Celik Y., Drori R., Pertaya-Braun N., Altan A., Barton T., Bar-Dolev M., Groisman A., Davies P.L., Braslavsky I. (2013) Microfluidic experiments reveal that antifreeze proteins bound to ice crystals suffice to prevent their growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110, 1309-14. PubMed: 23300286


  • Guo, S., Garnham, C.P., Whitney J.C., Graham, L.A. and Davies, P.L. (2012) Re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity.PLoS ONE 7, e48805 PubMed: 23144980
  • Campbell R.L., Davies P.L. (2012) Structure-function relationships in calpains. Biochem J. 447, 335-51 PubMed: 23035980
  • Garnham C.P., Nishimiya Y., Tsuda S., Davies P.L. (2012) Engineering a naturally inactive isoform of type III antifreeze protein into one that can stop the growth of ice. FEBS Lett. 586, 3876-81. PubMed: 23017208
  • Jo, H., Meinhardt, N., Wu, Y., Kulkarni, S., Hu, X., Low, K., Davies, P.L., DeGrado, W., Greenbaum, D. (2012) Development of α-helical calpain probes by mimicking a natural protein-protein interaction.Journal of the American Chemical Society 134(42), 17704-13 PubMed: 2298171
  • Graham, L.A., Li, J., Davidson, W.S., Davies, P.L. (2012) Smelt was the likely beneficiary of an antifreeze gene laterally transferred between fishes. BMC Evol. Biol. 12, 190 PubMed: 23009612
  • Middleton, A.J., Marshall, C.B., Faucher, F., Bar-Dolev, M., Braslavsky, I., Campbell, R.L., Walker, V.K. and Davies, P.L. (2012) Antifreeze protein from freeze-tolerant grass has a beta-roll fold with an irregularly structured ice-binding site. J. Mol. Biol. 416, 713-724 PubMed: 22306740
  • Bar-Dolev M., Celik Y., Wettlaufer J.S., Davies P.L., Braslavsky I. (2012) New insights into ice growth and melting modifications by antifreeze proteins. J R Soc Interface. 9, 3249-59. PubMed: 22787007
  • Kondo, H., Hanada, Y., Sugimoto, H., Garnham, C.P., Davies, P.L., Tusuda, S. (2012) Ice-binding site of snow mold fungus antifreeze protein deviates from structural regularity and high conservation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.109, 9360-9365 PubMed: 22645341
  • Desjardins, M., Graham, L.A., Davies, P.L. (2012) Antifreeze protein gene amplification facilitated niche exploitation and speciation in wolffish. FEBS J 297, 2215-2230 PubMed: 22520964
  • Middleton, A.J., Marshall, C.B., Faucher, F., Bar-Dolev, M., Braslavsky, I., Campbell, R.L., Walker, V.K., Davies, P.L. (2012) Antifreeze Protein from Freeze-Tolerant Grass Has a Beta-Roll Fold with an Irregularly Structured Ice-Binding Site. J. Mol. Biol.416, 713-724 PubMed: 22306740


  • Lin, F.H., Sun, T., Fletcher, G.L., Davies, P.L. (2011) Thermolabile antifreeze protein produced in Escherichia coli for structural analysis. Protein Expr. Purif. 82, 75-82 PubMed: 22155222
  • Garnham, C.P., Campbell, R.L., Walker, V.K and Davies, P.L. (2011) Novel dimeric beta-helical model of an ice nucleation protein with bridged active sites. BMC Structural Biology 11, 36 PubMed: 21951648   Free PDF at BioMed Central
  • Hobbs, R. S., Shears, M. A., Graham, L. A., Davies, P. L. and Fletcher, G. L. (2011) Isolation and characterization of type I antifreeze proteins from cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, order Perciformes. FEBS Journal 27, 3699-3710. PubMed: 21819541
  • Chou, J.S., Impens F., Gevaert, K., Davies, P.L. (2011) m-Calpain activation in vitro does not require autolysis or subunit dissociation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1814, 864-72. PubMed: 21549862
  • Lin, F.H.,Davies, P.L. and Graham, L.A. (2011) The Thr- and Ala-rich hyperactive antifreeze protein from inch worm folds as a flat silk-like β-helix. Biochemistry 50, 4467-4478. PubMed: 21486083
  • Laursen, K.J., Brown, A.J., Middleton, A.J., Davies, P.L. and Walker, V.K.(2011) Expression and characterization of an antifreeze protein from the perennial rye grass, Lolium perenne. Cryobiology 62, 194-201. PubMed: 21457707
  • Garnham, C.P., Campbell, R.L. and Davies, P.L. (2011) Anchored clathrate waters bind antifreeze proteins to ice. PNAS 108, 7363-7367. PubMed: 21482800 PubMed Central: PMC3088597


  • Yu S.O., Middleton, A.J., Tomczak, M.M, Walker, V.K., Davies P.L. (2010) Ice restructuring inhibition activities in antifreeze proteins with distinct differences in thermal hysteresis Cryobiology 61, 327-334. PubMed: 20977900
  • Garnham, C.P,. Natarajan, A,. Middleton, A.J., Kuiper, M.J., Braslavsky, I., Davies, P.L. (2010) Compound ice-binding site of an antifreeze protein revealed by mutagenesis and fluorescent tagging. Biochemistry 49, 9063-9071. PubMed: 20853841
  • Modig, K., Qvist, J., Marshall, C.B., Davies, P.L. , Halle, B. (2010) High water mobility on the ice-binding surface of a hyperactive antifreeze protein. Phys Chem Chem Phys 12, 10189-10197. PubMed: 20668761
  • Celik Y., Graham, L.A., Mok, Y.F., Bar, M., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky I. (2010) Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107, 5423-5428. PubMed: 20215465
  • Mok, Y.F., Lin, F.H., Graham, L.A., Celik, Y. Braslavsky, I., Davies, P.L. (2010) Structural basis for the superior activity of the large isoform of snow flea antifreeze protein. Biochemistry 49, 2593-2603. PubMed: 20158269


  • Kelly, J.C., Cuerrier, D., Graham, L.A., Campbell, R.L., and Davies, P.L. (2009) Profiling of calpain activity with a series of FRET-based substrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1794, 1505-1509. PubMed: 19555780
  • Garnham, C.P., Hanna, R.A., Chou, J.S., Low, K.E., Gourlay, K., Campbell, R.L., Beckmann, J.S. and Davies, P.L. (2009) Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A can result from accelerated autoproteolytic inactivation of calpain 3. Biochemistry 48, 3457-3467. PubMed: 19226146
  • Ravulapalli, R., Campbell, R.L., Gauthier, S.Y., Dhe-Paganon, S. and Davies, PL. (2009) Distinguishing between calpain heterodimerization and homodimerization. FEBS J. 276, 973-982. PubMed: 19215300
  • Middleton, A.J., Brown, A.M., Davies, P.L. and Walker, V.K. (2009) Identification of the ice-binding face of a plant antifreeze protein. FEBS Lett. 583, 815-819. PubMed: 19185572


  • Hanna, R.A., Campbell, R.L. and Davies, P.L. (2008) Calcium-bound structure of calpain and its mechanism of inhibition by calpastatin. Nature 456, 409-412. PubMed: 19020623
  • Gauthier, S.Y., Scotter, A.J., Lin. F.H., Baardsnes, J., Fletcher, G.L. and Davies, P.L. (2008) A re-evaluation of the role of type IV antifreeze protein. Cryobiology 57, 292-296. PubMed: 18938150
  • Qian, J., Cuerrier, D., Davies, P.L., Li, Z., Powers, J.C. and Campbell, R.L. (2008) Cocrystal structures of primed side-extending alpha-ketoamide inhibitors reveal novel calpain-inhibitor aromatic interactions. J. Med. Chem. 51, 5264-5270. PubMed: 18702462
  • Graham, L.A., Lougheed, S.C., Ewart, K.V. and Davies, P.L. (2008) Lateral transfer of a lectin-like antifreeze protein gene in fishes. PLoS ONE 3, e2616. PubMed: 18612417
  • Pertaya, N., Marshall, C.B., Celik, Y., Davies, P.L. and Braslavsky I. (2008) Direct visualization of spruce budworm antifreeze protein interacting with ice crystals: basal plane affinity confers hyperactivity. Biophys J. 95, 333-341. PubMed: 18339740
  • Graham, L.A., Marshall, C.B., Lin, F.H., Campbell, R.L. and Davies, PL. (2008) Hyperactive antifreeze protein from fish contains multiple ice-binding sites. Biochemistry 47, 2051-2063. PubMed: 18225917
  • Garnham, C.P., Gilbert, J.A., Hartman, C.P., Campbell, R.L., Laybourn-Parry, J. and Davies, P.L. (2008) A Ca2+-dependent bacterial antifreeze protein domain has a novel beta-helical ice-binding fold. Biochem J. 411, 171-180. PubMed: 8095937


  • Scotter A.J., Guo M., Tomczak M., Daley M.E., Campbell R.L., Oko R.J., Bateman D.A., Chakrabartty A., Sykes B.D., and Davies, P.L. (2007) Metal ion-dependent, reversible, protein filament formation by a designed beta-roll polypeptide, BMC Structural Biology, 7, 63 PubMed: 17908326
  • Pertaya, N, Gauthier, S., Celik, Y., DiPrinzio, C.L., Wettlaufer, J.S., Davies, P.L., and Braslavsky, I. (2007) Growth-melt asymmetry in ice crystals under the influence of the spruce budworm antifreeze protein. J Phys: Conds. Matter, 19, 412101.
  • Hanna R., Garcia Diaz, B. and Davies, P.L. (2007) Calpastatin simultaneously binds four calpains with different kinetic constants. FEBS Lett. 581, 2894-2898. PubMed: 17543955
  • Pertaya, N., Marshall, C.B., DiPrinzio, C.L., Wilen, L., Thomson, E.S., Wettlaufer, J.S., Davies, P.L. and Braslavsky, I. (2007) Fluorescence microscopy evidence for quasi-permanent attachment of antifreeze proteins to ice surfaces. Biophys. J. 92, 3663-3673. PubMed: 17325008
  • Graham, L.A., Qin, W., Lougheed, S.C., Davies, P.L. and Walker, V.K. (2007) Evolution of hyperactive, repetitive antifreeze proteins in beetles. J. Mol. Evol. 64, 387-398. PubMed: 17443386
  • Cuerrier, D., Moldoveanu, T., Campbell, R.L., Kelly, J., Yoruk, B., Verhelst, S.H.L., Greenbaum, D., Bogyo, M. and Davies, P.L. (2007) Development of calpain-specific inactivators by screening of positional-scanning epoxide libraries. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 9600-9611. PubMed: 17218315
  • Garcia-Arribas, O.Mateo, R.Tomczak, M., M., Davies, P. L., Mateu, M.G. (2007) Thermodynamic stability of a cold-adapted protein, type III antifreeze protein, and energetic contribution of salt bridges. Prot. Sci. 16, 227-238. PubMed: 17189482 17218315
  • Lin, F.H., Graham, L.A., Campbell, R.L. and Davies, P.L. (2007) Structural modeling of snow flea antifreeze protein. Biophys. J. 92, 1717-1723. PubMed: 17158562


  • Scotter, A. J., Marshall, C. B., Graham, L. A., Gilbert, J. A., Garnham, C. P., Davies, P. L., (2006) The basis for hyperactivity of antifreeze proteins. Cryobiology 53, 229-239. PubMed: 16887111
  • Cuerrier, D., Moldoveanu, T., Inoue, J., Davies, P. L., Campbell, R. L. (2006) Calpain inhibition by alpha-ketoamide and cyclic hemiacetal inhibitors revealed by X-ray crystallography Biochemistry 45, 7446-7452. PubMed: 16768440
  • Scotter, A.J., Kuntz, D.A., Saul, M., Graham, L.A., Davies, P.L. and Rose, D. (2006) Expression and purification of sea raven type II antifreeze protein from Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Prot. Expr. Purif. 47, 374-383. PubMed: 16330225
  • Tyshenko, M.G., d'Anjou, M., Davies, P.L., Daugulis, A.J. and Walker, V.K. (2006) Challenges in the expression of disulfide bonded, threonine-rich antifreeze proteins in bacteria and yeast. Protein Expr Purif. 47, 152-161. PubMed: 16290006
  • Garcia Diaz, B., Gauthier, S.Y. and Davies, P.L. (2006) The Ca2+ Dependency of Calpain 3 (p94) Activation. Biochemistry 45, 3714-3722. PubMed: 16533054


  • Cuerrier, D., Moldoveanu, T. and Davies, P.L. (2005) Determination of peptide substrate specificity for µ-calpain by a peptide library-based approach: the importance of primed-side interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 40632-41. PubMed: 16216885
  • Graham, L.A., Davies, P.L. (2005) Glycine-rich antifreeze proteins from snow fleas. Science 310, 461. PubMed: 16239469
  • Gauthier, S.Y., Marshall, C.B., Fletcher, G.L. and Davies, P.L. (2005) Hyperactive antifreeze protein in flounder species: the sole freeze protectant in American plaice. FEBS J. 272, 4439-4449. PubMed: 16128813
  • Gilbert, J.A., Davies, P.L. and Laybourn-Parry, J. (2005) A hyperactive, Ca2+-dependent antifreeze protein in an Antarctic bacterium. FEMS Microbiology Letters 245, 67-72. PubMed: 15796981
  • Marshall, C.B., Chakrabartty, A. and Davies, P.L. (2005) Hyperactive antifreeze protein from winter flounder is a very long, rod-like dimer of alpha-helices. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 17920-17929. PubMed: 15716269
  • Ravulapalli, R., Garcia Diaz, B., Campbell, R.L. and Davies, P.L. (2005) Homodimerization of calpain 3 penta-EF-hand domain. Biochem. J. 388, 585-591. PubMed: 15660530
  • Cuerrier, D., Nie, Z., Badley, A.D. and Davies, P.L. (2005) Ritonavir does not inhibit calpain in vitro. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 327, 208-211. PubMed: 15629450


  • Moldoveanu, T., Campbell, R.L., Cuerrier, D. and Davies, P.L. (2004) Crystal structures of calpain-E64 and -leupeptin inhibitor complexes reveal mobile loops gating the active site. J. Mol. Biol. 343, 1313-1326. PubMed: 15491615
  • Marshall, C.B., Daley, M.E., Sykes, B.D. and Davies, P.L. (2004) Enhancing the activity of an alpha-helical antifreeze protein by the engineered addition of coils. Biochemistry 43, 11637-11646. PubMed: 15362848
  • Garcia Diaz, B., Tudor Moldoveanu, T., Kuiper, M.J., Campbell, R.L. and Davies, P.L. (2004) Insertion sequence 1 of muscle-specific calpain, p94, acts as an internal propeptide. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 27656-27666. PubMed: 15073171
  • Marshall, C.B., Fletcher, G. and Davies, P.L. (2004) Hyperactive antifreeze proteins in fish. Nature 429, 153. PubMed: 15141201
  • Moldoveanu, T., Jia, Z. and Davies, P.L. (2004) Calpain activation by cooperative Ca2+ binding at two non-EF-hand sites. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6106-6114. PubMed: 14581465
  • Marshall, C.B., Tomczak, M.M., Gauthier, S.Y., Kuiper, M.J., Lankin, C., Walker, V.K. and Davies, P.L. (2004) Partitioning of fish and insect antifreeze proteins into ice suggests they bind with comparable affinity. Biochemistry 43, 148-154. PubMed: 14705940
  • Davies, P.L., Campbell, R.L. and Moldoveanu, T. (2004) Calpain, p. 489-500. In: The Handbook of Metalloproteins (Messerschmidt, A., ed.), John Wiley & Sons.


  • Baardsnes, J., Kuiper, M.J., Davies, P.L. (2003) Antifreeze protein dimer: When two ice-binding faces are better than one. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 38942-38947. PubMed: 12869550
  • Graham L.A., Brewer, D., Lajoie, G., Davies, P.L. (2003) Characterization of a subfamily of beetle odorant-binding proteins found in hemolymph. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8, 541-549. PubMed: 12883044
  • Leinala, E.K., Arthur, J.S., Grochulski, P., Davies, P.L., Elce, J.S., Jia, Z. (2003) A second binding site revealed by C-terminal truncation of calpain small subunit, a penta-EF-hand protein. Proteins 53, 649-655. PubMed: 14579356
  • Tomczak, M.M., Marshall, C.B., Gilbert, J.A., Davies, P.L. (2003) A facile method for determining ice recrystallization inhibition by antifreeze proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 311, 1041-1046. PubMed: 14623287
  • Moldoveanu, T., Hosfield, C.M., Lim, D., Jia, Z. and Davies, P.L. Calpain silencing by a reversible intrinsic mechanism. (2003) Nature Struct. Biol. 10, 371-378. PubMed: 12665854
  • Graether, S.P., Gagné, S.M., Spyracopoulos, L., Jia, Z., Davies, P.L. and Sykes, B.D. Spruce budworm antifreeze protein: changes in structure and dynamics at low temperature. (2003) J. Mol. Biol. 327, 1155-1168. PubMed: 12662938
  • Kuiper, M.J., Lankin, C., Gauthier, S.Y., Walker, V.K. and Davies, P.L. Purification of Antifreeze Proteins by Adsorption to Ice. (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 300, 645-648. PubMed: 12507497


  • Rey, M. and Davies, P.L. The protease core of the muscle-specific calpain, p94, undergoes Ca2+-dependent intramolecular autolysis. (2002) FEBS Lett. 532, 645-648. PubMed: 12482600
  • Marshall, C.B., Daley, M.E., Graham, L.A., Sykes, B.D. and Davies, P.L. Identification of the ice-binding face of antifreeze protein from Tenebrio molitor. (2002) FEBS Lett. 529, 261-267. PubMed: 12372611
  • Baardsnes, J. and Davies, P.L. Contribution of hydrophobic residues to ice binding by fish Type III antifreeze protein. (2002) Biochim Biophys Acta 1601, 49-54. PubMed: 12429502
  • Davies, P.L., Baardsnes, J., Kuiper, M.J. and Walker, V.K. Structure and function of antifreeze proteins. (2002) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 357, 927-935. PubMed: 12171656
  • Leinala, E.K., Davies, P.L., Doucet, D., Tyshenko, M.G., Walker, V.K. and Jia, Z. A beta-helical antifreeze protein isoform with increased activity: structural and functional insights. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 33349-33352. PubMed: 12105229
  • Graham, L.A. and Davies, P.L. The odorant-binding proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: Annotation and characterization of a divergent gene family. (2002) Gene 292, 43-55. PubMed: 12119098
  • Dutt, P., Spriggs, C.N., Davies, P.L., Jia, Z., Elce, J.S. Origins of the difference in Ca2+ requirement for activation of beta- and m-calpain. (2002) Biochem J. 367, 263-269. PubMed: 12014988
  • Leinala, E.K., Davies, P.L. and Jia, Z. Crystal Structure of beta-Helical Antifreeze Protein Points to a General Ice Binding Model. (2002) Structure 10, 619-627. PubMed: 12015145
  • Leinala, E.K., Davies, P.L. and Jia, Z. Elevated temperature and tyrosine iodination aid in the crystallization and structure determination of an antifreeze protein. (2002) Acta Cryst D58, 1081-1083. PubMed: 12037324
  • Daley, M.E., Spyracopoulos, L., Jia, Z., Davies, P.L. and Sykes, B.D. Structure and dynamics of a beta-helical antifreeze protein. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 5515-5525. PubMed: 11969412
  • Doucet, D., Tyshenko, M.G., Davies, P.L. and Walker, V.K. A family of expressed antifreeze protein genes from the moth, Choristoneura fumiferana. (2002) Eur. J.Biochem. 269, 38-46. PubMed: 11784296
  • Jia, Z. and Davies, P.L. Antifreeze proteins: an unusual receptor-ligand interaction. (2002) TIBS 27, 101-106. PubMed: 11852248
  • Jia Z., Hosfield, C.M., Davies, P.L. and Elce, J.S. Crystal structure of calpain and insights into Ca2+-dependent activation. (2002) Methods Mol Biol 172, 51-67. PubMed: 11833359
  • Moldoveanu, T., Hosfield, C.M., Lim, D., Elce, J.S., Jia, Z. and Davies, P.L. A Ca2+ Switch Aligns the Active Site of Calpain. (2002) Cell 108, 649-660. PubMed: 11893336


  • Fletcher, G.L., Hew, C.L. and Davies, P.L. Antifreeze proteins of teleost fishes. (2001) Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63, 359-390. PubMed: 11181960
  • Moldoveanu, T., Hosfield, C.M., Jia, Z., Elce, S.J. and Davies, P.L. Ca2+-induced structural changes in rat m-calpain revealed by partial proteolysis. (2001) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1545, 245-254. PubMed: 11342050
  • Graham, L.A., Tang, W., Baust, J.G., Liou, Y-C. Reid, T.S. and Davies, P.L. Characterization and cloning of a Tenebrio molitor hemolymph protein with sequence similarity to insect odorant-binding proteins. (2001) Insect Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 31, 691-702. PubMed: 11267907
  • Hosfield, C.M., Moldoveanu, T., Davies, P.L., Elce, J.S. and Jia, Z. Calpain mutants with increased Ca2+ sensitivity and implications for the role of the C2-like domain III. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 7404-7407. PubMed: 11102442
  • Jia, Z., Petrounevitch, V., Wong, A., Moldoveanu, T., Davies, P.L., Elce, J.S. and Beckmann, J.S. Mutations in calpain 3 associated with limb girdle muscular dystrophy: analysis by molecular modelling and by mutation in m-calpain. (2001) Biophys. J. 80, 2590-2596. PubMed: 11371436
  • Graether, S.P., Slupsky, C.M., Davies, P.L. and Sykes, B.D. Structure of type I antifreeze protein and mutants in supercooled water. (2001) Biophys. J. 81, 1677-1683. PubMed: 11509380
  • Baardsnes, J. and Davies, P.L. Sialic acid synthase: the origin of fish type III antifreeze protein? (2001) TIBS 26, 468-469. PubMed: 11504613
  • Kuiper, M.J., Davies, P.L. and Walker, V.K. A Theoretical Model of a Plant Antifreeze Protein from Lolium perenne. (2001) Biophys. J. 81, 3560-3565. PubMed: 11721016
  • Baardsnes, J., Jelokhani-Niaraki, M., Kondejewski, L.H., Kuiper, M.J., Kay, C.M., Hodges, R.S. and Davies, P.L. Antifreeze Protein from Shorthorn Sculpin: Identification of the Ice-Binding Surface. (2001) Protein Science 10, 2566-2576. PubMed: 11714925


  • Liou, Y.-C., Davies, P.L. and Jia, Z. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of insect antifreeze protein from the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. (2000) Acta Cryst. D56, 354-356. PubMed: 10713525
  • Liou, Y.-C., Daley, M.E., Graham, L.A., Kay, C.M., Walker, V.K. Sykes, B.D. and Davies, P.L. Folding and structural characterization of highly disulfide-bonded beetleantifreeze protein produced in bacteria. (2000) Protein Expression and Purification 19, 148-157. PubMed: 10833402
  • Liou, Y.-C., Tocilj, A., Davies, P.L. and Jia, Z. Mimicry of ice structure by surface hydroxyls and water of a beta-helix antifreeze protein (2000) Nature 406, 322-324. PubMed: 10917536
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